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Routers VPN 6. Hardware Firewalls 5. Who is Participating? Solutions Learn More Through Courses. Experts Exchange Solution brought to you by Enjoy your complimentary solution view. Get this solution by purchasing an Individual license! Start your 7-day free trial. I wear a lot of hats LVL In the config, you probably have a boot string. You need to change it to match the new images and locations. Do this by typing "no" followed by the current command and then adding the new one. Yes, I tried this one: The slots are normally disk0: I don't think there's a disk2: What is the current boot string?

What string do you use to boot from rommon? You mentioned the bootldr image. Is that string correct or missing? Download the guide. That's waht am wondering from,, but I have disk2 only,, alaska boot sh disk2: S also I used boot bootldr bootflash: S and the same thing I don't see the image you're trying to boot from on disk2: Can you type "show boot" it works on some devices and not others.

If it works, post the output.

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Also post the full output of show version. How did you get to the bootldr image your prompt ends in "boot". Did it boot there on it's own or did you boot there? Dear mikebernhardt: I sent it by mistake here is my bootvar output: S Configuration register is 0xF here is sh version output: Compiled Fri Jan System Bootstrap, Version Bridging software. Configuration register is 0xF. The History-Info header provides a building block for development of new services. Page 31 of Product Bulletin 3. The Cisco Series is part of the Cisco fixed-configuration router family and offers Internet access, security, voice, and wireless services over broadband speeds in a single, secure device that is simple to use and manage, for small businesses and small remote offices.

The Cisco Series Integrated Services Routers are fixed-configuration routers that provide collaborative business solutions for secure data communication to small businesses and Enterprise teleworkers. Wireless The G series has 2 variants: These routers help extend corporate networks to secure remote sites while giving users access to the same applications found in a corporate office.

Table 7. Contact your Cisco representative or visit http: It provides an advanced and accelerated threat control to protect the SMB and branch offices and extend the security perimeter out to the entire corporate network. Page 34 of Product Bulletin 4 Release Page 35 of Product Bulletin 4. Trusted member routers use a common security methodology that is independent of any point-to-point IPSec tunnel relationship. Content-aware security ratings protect against malware, malicious code, phishing attacks, and spyware.

URL and keyword blocking help to ensure that employees are productive when accessing the Internet. It is supported on routers running the Advanced Security image. Feature licenses can be purchased directly from the Cisco. Page 36 of Product Bulletin Figure Divisions or functional groups separated by VRF segments may have different threat protection needs. Examples include: Page 37 of Product Bulletin Figure Internet perimeter, remote-site connectivity, business-partner access, and telecommuter connections.

Page 38 of Product Bulletin Figure Page 39 of Product Bulletin 4. This feature offers inspection for locally generated and locally terminated SKINNY protocol data in two main deployment scenarios: It supports both pass-through and local traffic. Page 40 of Product Bulletin Additional Information: IP hosts and networks, protocols and ports are defined in object groups. The two steps required to configure object groups for ACLs is shown below: Step 1.

Define the Object Group: Define network type object-groups to group IP hosts and networks object-group network Engineering Page 41 of Product Bulletin tcp www tcp object-group service Mail-ports tcp smtp tcp pop3 tcp tcp Step 2. This is especially true for cellular providers that authenticate users as they join the network.

Page 42 of Product Bulletin 4. Traffic is encrypted and authenticated using a Layer 2 tunneling functionality that is similar to traditional IPSec, and is agnostic to traffic type. Performance is greatly improved because there is no need to apply URL mangling on the secure traffic as is required with clientless connections.

Administrators can now support a mixed operating system network environment. Once pushed down to the user, the Cisco AnyConnect client can be configured to stay installed so that subsequent connections do not require repeated downloads and installations. Standalone mode allows users to initiate new SSL VPN tunnel sessions without the need of a web browser, simplifying the login procedure. Page 43 of Product Bulletin succeed. This process is very CPU intensive and time consuming, affecting performance and scalability. Internal web-based connections to protected resources are still processed normally through the SSL VPN gateway, while external traffic can be allowed a direct connection.

Page 44 of Product Bulletin Figure NHRP statistics associated with corresponding tunnels. This also allows the capability of sharing the same CE device for various internal departments while maintaining separate VRF tables for each department. For this, group members can use the same certificate for authentication, for all the crypto maps applied on VRF interfaces. However, traffic excluded from any of the encryption policies are subject to be routed across group member VRFs. Group members should also use a separate certificate to authenticate each crypto map. Page 46 of Product Bulletin 4.

By default, the IKE option is turned on. The default IPSec transform set will be used only if no other transform set is configured for a crypto map. If the user configures the isakmp policy then the default policy will not be used during negotiation. This command is not available in the K8 images.

The following show commands are some examples MIB table information is for a specific VRF if the VRF-name is provided; otherwise, the information for all vrfs is displayed: Page 48 of Product Bulletin Additional Information: To improve performance of certificate validation, IOS keeps a cache of the downloaded CRL in volatile storage on the router. Instead of using a fixed amount of volatile memory, administrators can reduce the cache size for low memory conditions or increase it for better performance when dealing with a large number of CRLs.

This eases the deployment process for routers, particularly routers that do not already have Internet connectivity. Benefits CSSR delivers the following benefits: Please test your configurations prior to upgrading to this software release. Page 50 of Product Bulletin 4. It is widely used in the Internet to synchronize hosts and routers clocks as a large number of manufacturers include NTP software for their systems.

As the Internet evolves from thousands to millions of devices, improvements to NTP are required to better scale, enhance security, and comply with next generation of Internet Protocol Version 6 IPv6. The Cisco implementation prior to Release In addition, MD5 session authentication can be enabled for a selective set of LDP sessions via access-control lists. Additional LDP feature enhancements are also introduced to provide the ability to dynamically change the configuration of MD5 keys for LDP session authentication.

Via a configurable MD5 keychain, multiple MD5 authentication keys with specific activation intervals can be configured for a given LDP session. Configurable key chain enables flexible scheduling of multiple MD5 keys to be used for LDP session authentication. Page 52 of Product Bulletin 4. Via explicit routing and QoS mapping procedures ie: However, as more services are being deployed on the network, the general network implementation architecture becomes extremely complex, creating the need for more structured QoS queuing and shaping capabilities.

Cisco IOS Release This provides the most comprehensive, granular, and flexible QoS network operating system architecture available in the industry today. Page 55 of Product Bulletin 4. You can configure the actual address for the router to use, or which interface, including a loopback, from which to borrow the address. R2 uses this information to forward the corresponding RESV message upstream hop-by-hop towards the sender.

This results in the corresponding RESV message generated by R2 never reaching R1, and the reservation never being established. CE1 records its outgoing interface IP address CE2 has a receiver proxy configured for the destination address of the session.

Cisco IOS Software Release 12.4T Features and Hardware Support

Because this IP address Page 57 of Product Bulletin Figure Key benefits include: Some recent 3rd party operating system releases enable IPv6 traffic authentication between hosts in a managed domain through the use of the IPv6 IPSec AH extension header. Page 58 of Product Bulletin Figure Page 59 of Product Bulletin existing office applications and introduce new applications to where the operations take place.

Through these practices, organizations expect their business operations to become more streamlined, and mobile workers are able to perform their job functions remotely in an efficient and effective manner. However, simply extending IP networks is not sufficient to support mobile operations. When an IP network moves from one location to another, its network point of attachment is often changed. Without proper provisioning, the IP network can become unreachable. As a result, application traffic to IP devices on that IP network is dropped.

The diagram below illustrates this point. Traffic is dropped when IP networks are moved from one location to another The bus shown in Figure 15 above has an IP network associated with a router. The router provides backhaul connectivity to the data center and there are multiple IP devices, such as video surveillance camera, connected to the IP network on the router. At time 1, the bus is in a parking lot and its network point of attachment is through a WiFi network in the parking lot.

At time 2, when the bus leaves the parking lot and drives onto the street, it losses its WiFi connection and is now using a 3G wireless connection as the network point of attachment. When this happens without IP mobility technology, the traffic destined to the IP network is dropped since the rest of the network has routing tables that point the IP network toward the WiFi network.

When the router moves to its new point of attachment, it registers with a Mobile IP Home Agent to inform its new point of attachment. The rest of the network continues forwarding the traffic to the Home Agent, and the Home Agent forwards the traffic to the IP network via the new point of attachment. This results in no routing convergence, eliminating disruptions in network connectivity. Page 60 of Product Bulletin With Mobile Networks v6—Basic NEMO support, both mobile networks and transport networks can also be IPv6 networks, allowing the extension of the number of mobile nodes to large scale in situations where an IPv6 addressing scheme is available.

Page 61 of Product Bulletin 4. It can be used to run diagnostic audits on the network and monitor device health and state. Cisco IOS Service Diagnostics provides a simple interface for deploying and receiving diagnostic information from scenario-specific troubleshooting scripts. EMM provides a programmable framework which allows Cisco IOS to present a custom, character-based menu wizard user interface to guide users through complex configuration tasks.

Page 62 of Product Bulletin Figure Page 63 of Product Bulletin and defined as event triggers. EEM Version 2. Two new event detectors: Allows for programs outside of the device to invoke specific device-resident, embedded policies by sending a SOAP request over an SSHv2 connection. The device-resident policy runs on the device and may reply with information in a subsequent SOAP response.

Creates events when a specified SNMP trap or inform is received at the device. Multiple Event Correlation: EEM 2. Previously, a single event specification triggered a policy. Now up to 8 events may be correlated together using logical operators allowing for more granular and very powerful policy triggers. Script Policy Refresh: This feature allows for easy management, distribution, and update of device resident polices using a pull model. Additional ease of use enhancements and extensions: Rate based trigger; Bytecode support; Support for parameters on the event manager run command; Clear command to kill a policy; Registration substitution enhancement; SNMP ED enhancement - delta value; Tcl package support Table 9.

None by run command Allows execution of an EEM policy by direct command, event manager run. Syslog Regular expression pattern match on emitted Syslog messages. Timer Custom timed events. System monitor event. Secure system operation EEM scripts run within system constraints Protects system from harm. A looping script will not stop Cisco IOS. User scripts run in Safe-Tcl mode Certain programmable options are disabled for protection Controlled environment Only a network administrator with privileged access can define and set up EEM scripts.

Online scripting community Cisco Beyond—Product A place for customers to share and download scripts. Build and extend Extension Community the work of others. Product Management Contact: EPC be used in troubleshooting scenarios where it is helpful to see the actual data being sent through, from, or to the network device.

Suppose, for example, help desk personnel need to determine why a particular device cannot access the network or some application. It might be necessary to capture IP data packets and examine the data to determine the problem. Another case might be when trying to determine an attack signature for a network threat or server system security breach. EPC can help capture packets flowing into the network at the origin or perimeter.

Flexible NetFlow Exporter can be configured to run output features, which allows NetFlow exported packets to be classified using QoS, and sent encrypted when IPSec is configured on the outgoing interface where exported packets are sent through. It allows optimization of the network infrastructure, reducing operation costs, improved capacity planning and security incident detection with increased NetFlow flexibility and scalability beyond other flow based technologies available today. For example, the user can create concurrent flow data for both security analysis and traffic analysis.

Cisco IOS Flexible NetFlow provides enhanced security detection and or network troubleshooting by allowing customization of flow information. For example, the user can create a specific flow definition to focus and analyze a particular network issue or incident.

It will allow customers to replicate all existing features available in NetFlow for IPv6 without impact to existing collectors. This includes the collection of flows records using a pre-defined set of key fields, and the export of flow records using NetFlow v9 with pre-defined aggregations. Flexible NetFlow provides a set of features that enable customers to migrate smoothly without any modification of existing collectors. This can be achieved by using predefined records and predefined aggregation. Page 68 of Product Bulletin Figure It is a unified communications solution for small to medium size businesses and Enterprise branch offices that provide voice, data, voicemail, automated-attendant, video, and security capabilities while integrating with existing desktop applications such as calendar, email, and Customer Relationship Management CRM programs.

Cisco Integrated Services Router This easy-to-manage platform takes full advantage of business-class, proven unified communications technologies and supports flexible deployment models based on your needs-a wide array of IP phones, Public Switched Telephone Network PSTN interfaces, and Internet connectivity. Page 69 of Product Bulletin Core components include the following: For more information about the Cisco Integrated Services Routers, please visit http: Cisco Product Overview Cisco Series Integrated Services Routers are fixed-configuration routers that provide collaborative business solutions for secure data communication to small businesses and Enterprise teleworkers.

The Cisco Series provides the performance required for concurrent services, including firewall, intrusion prevention, content filtering, and encryption for VPNs; optional In addition, Cisco Configuration Professional is a Web-based configuration tool that simplifies setup and deployment. Centralized management capabilities give network managers visibility and control of the network configurations at the remote site. Fast Ethernet, G. Easy deployment and centralized management features enable the Cisco Series to be deployed by service providers for small businesses.

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Page 72 of Product Bulletin Figure Table With flexible support for a variety of WAN interfaces and line side voice interfaces, wireless services, as well as integrated security services, the Cisco IAD Series is customized to the unique requirements for the small and medium-sized business. Priced with the small and medium-sized business customer in mind, the feature-rich Cisco IAD Series offers superior value to a service provider interested in taking advantage of the growing managed small and medium-sized business services market.

Transparent Service Migration The Cisco IAD Series can help service providers transparently migrate end customers from TDM-based voice service to call agent-based packet voice services without the need for a complete equipment upgrade at the end-customer site. Combined with the option for call agent- and BRI-based network designs, the Cisco IAD Series offers powerful flexibility in the design of next-generation multiservice networks.

Functional Intelligence When used with the popular Cisco Configuration Express tool, the auto-installation technology offers true ready-to-use installation. Cisco IOS Software delivers rich data services, allowing service providers to gain additional data revenue, in addition to proven industry-tested voice features. Operational Efficiencies The new Cisco IAD Series can increase operational efficiencies by reducing or eliminating the necessity for complete hardware upgrades, warehousing, complete equipment upgrades, and highly skilled technician involvement.

Service providers that deploy these devices with other Cisco equipment and Cisco IOS Software can cost-effectively extend training, administration, and maintenance activities across the entire network. Primary Benefits to End Users Robust Voice Quality The Cisco experience in providing toll-quality packet-voice service helps ensure that the Cisco IAD Series provides the clear, robust voice quality that users have come to expect from telephony services. Page 74 of Product Bulletin Reliability Cisco products are known for their exceptional reliability earned through years of proven industry service.

The Cisco IAD Series extends the same reliability standards to managed service environments to provide end users with high levels of dependability. The Cisco IAD Series allows service providers to add or remove service offerings remotely based on end-user needs. It is designed to cost-effectively accelerate data transfer over the WAN by overcoming bandwidth limitations, and mitigating effects of latency and packet loss.

Unlike other bandwidth optimization or latency mitigation products, Cisco NCE is a small-footprint module that easily integrates into the modular Cisco ISRs. The E feature includes: Return calls from PSAP are routed to an operator or security personnel in case no matching E callback record is found 7. Flexible ERL matching with the use of zones allowing for ranking of the locations and controlling the order of ERL searches 9. A user login service allows phone users to temporarily access a physical phone other than their own phone and utilize their personal settings, such as directory number, speed-dial lists, and services, as if the phone is their own desk phone.

The phone user can make and receive calls on that phone using the same personal directory number as is on their own desk phone. Octo-line support An octo-line directory number supports up to eight active calls, both incoming and outgoing, on a single phone button. Unlike a dual-line directory number, which is shared exclusively among phones after a call is answered, that phone owns both channels of the dual-line directory number , an octo-line directory number can split its channels among other phones that share the directory number.

All phones are allowed to initiate or receive calls on the idle channels of the shared octoline directory number. Call Barge with Privacy Release The Barge feature enables phone users to join a call on a shared octo-line directory number by pressing the Cbarge soft key and converting the call to an ad hoc conference. When the initiator barges into a call, an ad hoc conference is created between the barge initiator, the target party, and the other party connected in the call. Parties see the call information on their phone displays and, if the conference join tone is configured, hear a tone.

The call information for all parties changes to barge and the participants can add more parties to the conference or drop any party. The initiator of the barge sees a new call created on their line in the connected state. The original remote-in-use call at the initiator does not change state as a result of the barge. The target party of the barge sees a new call created on their line in the remote-in-use state.

The original connected call at the target party does not change state as a result of the barge. The privacy feature enables phone users to block other users from seeing call information or barging into a call on a shared octo-line directory number. When a phone receives an incoming call on a shared octo-line, the user can make the call private by pressing the Privacy feature button, which toggles between on and off to allow the user to alter the privacy setting on their phone.

The privacy state is applied to new calls and current calls owned by the phone user. Privacy is enabled for all phones in the system by default. You can disable privacy globally and enable it for specific phones only, either individually or through an ephone template. The speed-dial and fast-dial settings can be added or modified on the phone by using a menu available with the Services feature button.

Extension Mobility users can add or modify speeddial settings in their user profile after logging in. The logout profile is not configurable from the phone. The user presses the TrnsfVM soft key to place the call on hold, enters the extension number, and then commits the transfer by pressing the TrnsfVM soft key again. The caller hears the complete voice mail greeting.

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An audible notification, either by announcement or by periodic beep, alerts participants that the conversation is being recorded. The playing of the announcement or beep is under the control of Cisco Unity Express. Using parallel hunt groups is also referred to as application-level forking because it enables the forking of a call to multiple destinations. After a phone user completes a transfer to a directory number on a local phone, if the transfer-to party does not answer, the call is forwarded back to the transferor phone after the configured recall timer expires.

If the transfer-recall timer expires before a call is answered, the call is directed back to the transferor phone if the transfer-to directory number does not have Call Forward Busy enabled and is not a member of any hunt group. The benefits include: SRTP conference calls over H. This enables Cisco Unified CME to support the same codecs that are used in newer Cisco Unified IP phones, mobile wireless networks, and internet telephony without transcoding.

This feature provides support for the following: Octo-line support With the octo-line support in the Cisco Unified SRST, a single phone button can have up to 8 active calls, both incoming and outgoing during the time the connection to the centralized communications manager is out of service.

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Page 80 of Product Bulletin Figure The new features in CUBE 1. SIP profiles enable the integration of new types of devices and applications and allow for interoperability with third party devices that require specific SIP messages. A rich set of voice quality metrics such as K factor and late voice packet counts are made available in gateways for SIP and H signaling protocols in addition to MGCP.

Troubleshooting problems such as one way audio and echo are made easier for network administrators. Voice jitter buffer improvement applicable on the Cisco VoIP gateways results in overall improved VoIP call quality and better delay adaptation with a variety of endpoints in branch offices. This feature enables the IP video and voice network implementations to talk directly to the next generation 3G mobile networks. Ultimately, these video calls are transferred to agents with video capabilities. The 3GM gateway functionality is supported for basic calls and also for calls which require supplementary services like hold, resume, transfer and conference.


Page 82 of Product Bulletin 5. As a core facet of the self-defending network, Cisco IOS IPS enables the network to defend itself with the intelligence to accurately identify, classify, and stop or block malicious or damaging traffic in real time. While it is common practice to defend against attacks by inspecting traffic at the data centers and corporate headquarters, distributing the defense to stop malicious traffic close to its entry point at the branch offices is also critical.

Deploying inline Cisco IOS IPS at the branch enables gateways to drop offending traffic, send an alarm, block an attacker or reset a potentially malicious client-server connection as needed to stop attacking traffic at its point of origin. The Cisco IPS version 5.

Security Device Manager 2. For large scale deployments, it is possible to distribute signature selection and action tunings applied to a single router to a large number of routers using Cisco Configuration Engine. It features powerful custom pattern matching deep within the packet header or payload, minimizing inadvertent blocking of legitimate business traffic.

FPM is a packet classification feature that allows users to define one or more classes of network traffic by pairing a rich set of standard matching operators with user-defined protocol header fields. FPM further extends the network traffic class definition capability to include new CLI syntax to offset into a user-defined protocol header and, furthermore, into the data portion of the packet. Administrators can specify custom match patterns at multiple offsets within the packet. Customers can also customize and add extensions to PHDFs at device run time.

In the initial release, FPM was limited to searching for patterns 32 bytes long within the first bytes of a packet. This provides greater flexibility for defining filters for miscreant traffic targeting your network.

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Using only a Web browser, companies can extend their secure Enterprise networks to any Internet-enabled location, including home computers, Internet kiosks, and wireless hotspots-thereby enabling higher employee productivity and protecting corporate data. While this allows for a great end-user experience, it must be balanced with proper access-control so end-users have access to only those resources dictated by corporate policy.

You can purchase the feature license in packs of 10, 25, or simultaneous users directly from the Cisco. Figure 30 provides more portfolio and license pricing details. Page 87 of Product Bulletin Figure Cisco Express Forwarding CEF technology for IP is a scalable, distributed, layer 3 switching solution designed to meet the future performance requirements of the Internet and Enterprise networks.

Hardware acceleration is also now supported, offloading the processor from extensive cryptographic computations. Reduction of the overall load of the processor allows for greater scalability and throughput providing for an improved user experience and user density per router. Reducing the CPU load also allows for configuration of other concurrent features on the router. CEF and hardware support are enabled by default. Increased number of concurrent users and throughput. Improved customization of the user interface provide for greater flexibility and ability to tailor the portal pages for an individualized look and feel.

Features are more clearly delineated, making for a more intuitive and less cluttered interface. Page 88 of Product Bulletin mangled links or URLs, eliminating any need to navigate back to the portal page. The separate toolbar window has been replaced with an integrated floating toolbar that floats in either the upper left or right dynamically configurable of pages spawned from the portal page.

Previous interface configurations are still available. Previous Configurable Elements: Integration of the toolbar reduces clutter of the desktop by removing an extra window. The user profile location can be stored on any of the file systems on the router as well as externally such as a Trivial File Transfer Protocol TFTP server. In addition to administrator defined bookmarks, Cisco IOS SSL VPN users can create, edit, and delete their own individual bookmark list and have access to them on any computer at any location.

The user level bookmarking feature gives flexibility to users to customize the portal page to suit their individual needs. In addition to predefined links configured by the administrator, users can create a list of bookmarks that are most useful for them. The backend or iVRF functionality remains the same. It provides similar functionality and features as traditional IPsec clients. As with clientless access, no provisioning on the client machine is required. Initial installation requires admin rights, but upgrading an existing install does not.

Page 91 of Product Bulletin Figure It compliments clientless operations, allowing for traditional IPsec like connectivity between clients and the secure Cisco IOS Software gateway. Improves RRI flexibility when used in dynamic routing scenarios. Static routes can be tailored so dynamic routes can have priority in the routing table. The OSPF Mechanism to Exclude Connected Prefixes feature enhancement provides the ability to exclude directly connected prefixes from advertising throughout the network.

When this feature is configured, IP numbered link prefixes will not be advertised into the network, resulting in improved convergence times and enhanced security by excluding internal network prefixes from being exposed outside of the network. Key Benefits: By excluding prefixes in OSPF advertisements, the network will converge faster, scale better. Performance of routers is improved by dealing with less number of prefixes in a network. By not advertising connected prefixes, OSPF area border routers or autonomous system border routers will not be able to advertise these prefixes outside of the network.

This improves the security of the network by not advertising connected prefixes to external entities. This feature allows OER the ability to optimize well known applications without having to configure ACLs to classify the traffic. Application optimization can be divided into three important tasks; application detection learning , application performance measurement, and application route control.

With this feature, you can specify an application by name for learning, performance measurement and route optimization. Page 93 of Product Bulletin Table 7 is a list of some of the applications that can be defined in OER policies for performance routing: This enables intelligent network traffic load distribution and dynamic failure detection of data-paths at the WAN edge for multi-homing to the Internet or intranet connectivity.

Page 94 of Product Bulletin adjustments based on criteria other than static routing metrics: OER Link Grouping allows one or more interfaces on the border router to be assigned to a link group. By assigning interfaces to a link group, applications can be directed to only traverse interfaces within a link group. Policies are used to select an exit interface from a given link group. Fallback link groups can be used by the Policy if no interface within a link group is available or meets the policy requirements. In corporate communications or IP video environments, it is important that the network link is not oversubscribed or video services might degrade for a set of users.

Cisco understands this problem and has implemented a method to control and monitor the total bandwidth consumed at the network edge. Bandwidth based CAC has the ability to control how much bandwidth various content providers can use across a network by assigning specific multicast groups allowable bandwidth consumption. GLBP is enhanced with the ability to display more information about individual network clients that are using GLBP as their default gateway. This makes it easier to understand: This enables large deployments where common DHCP parameters configuration can be grouped under a single pool, while subnet specific parameters can be set as well.

Previously, group member monitoring relied exclusively on HSRP multicast messages. These messages are relatively large, hence CPU consuming to produce and check. In architectures where a single interface hosts hundreds of groups there is a need for a lighter protocol. Page 97 of Product Bulletin 5.

The choice of imported options is set on a pool basis. Page 98 of Product Bulletin Additional Information: The convergence of business-critical applications onto a common IP infrastructure in Enterprise and Service Provider networks is becoming more common. Given the criticality of the data, these networks are typically constructed with a high degree of redundancy. While such redundancy is desirable to increase network availability, its effectiveness is dependant upon the ability of individual network devices to quickly detect failures and reroute traffic to an alternate path.

Routing protocol convergence is a key issue in these converged network designs since it determines the routes available to send data packets on and the reachability of the network. In order to maintain the integrity of routing data, it is vital to have accurate information regarding the status of links and whether they are up or down. It addresses some of the important problems in link status detection: This is important when there is a routing flap in the routing protocol at Layer 3 but the underlying Layer 2 Link is fine.

This is slow in terms of times which applications require for network connectivity to be maintained. BFD provides a low-overhead, short-duration method of detecting failures in the forwarding path between two adjacent routers, including the interfaces, data links, and forwarding planes. Cisco currently supports the BFD Asynchronous mode, which depends on the sending of BFD control packets between two systems for liveness detection between the forwarding engines of the BFD neighbors.

Page 99 of Product Bulletin Figure Consider CPU utilization, link speed, and speed of light constraints before setting low values. By obtaining this information, future subscriber decisions can be made at later points during the call set-up phase. Page of Product Bulletin Figure Automatic notifications can include a status email sent upon completion of successful warm upgrade or failure and roll-back, error messages indicating any incompatible CLI statements, and should the upgrade fail for any reason, error messages are generated and sent to the console and syslog buffers.

Finite resources such as buffer, memory, and processor utilization are monitored. ERM works by monitoring resource utilization from the perspective of resource owners and resources users. Network administrators can define thresholds to create notifications according to the real-time resource consumption.

It goes beyond simply monitoring for total CPU utilization for example. Features and Benefits The Embedded Resource Manager ERM infrastructure tracks resource utilization, depletion and resource dependencies across processes and within a system. ERM represents a framework for monitoring any finite resource within the software. Page of Product Bulletin utilization at the global or task level is available today. The ERM framework is extensible and will be further enhanced to provide more function in future software releases.

The ERM framework provides a mechanism to send notifications whenever the specified threshold values are violated by any Resource User RU. This notification helps in diagnosing any CPU, buffer, and memory utilization issues. The Embedded Resource Manager feature allows you to: As an example, the OSPF hello process is a resource user. Threshold limits are used to notify network operations of specific conditions. The ERM infrastructure provides a means to notify the internal RU subsystem of threshold indications as well. The resource accounting is performed by individual Resource Owners ROs.

When the utilization for each of the RUs crosses the threshold value you have set, the ROs send internal notifications to the RUs and to network administrators in the form of Syslog messages or SNMP alerts. You can set rising and falling values for critical, major, and minor levels of thresholds.

When the resource utilization crosses the rising threshold level, an Up notification is sent. When the resource utilization falls below the falling threshold level, a Down notification is sent. ERM provides for three types of thresholds to be defined: CPU, buffer, and memory resources are monitored. Granular, per subsystem statistics ERM accounts for resource utilization on both a system level as well as on a per subsystem task level.

User defined thresholds Network administrators can set the thresholds for specific conditions. Multiple threshold levels You can set rising and falling threshold values for minor, major, and critical levels of resource utilization for buffer, CPU, and memory ROs. Page of Product Bulletin Feature Benefit Extended Statistics and Information Loadometer process The loadometer process generates an extended load monitor report every 5 seconds.

The loadometer function, which calculates process CPU usage percentages, is enhanced to generate the loadometer process reports. Snapshot Management using event trace Snapshot management manages the buffer where snapshots of reports are stored. The snapshot management infrastructure stores, displays, and releases the snapshots. The timer ISR starts profiling a process when it notices that the process has taken more than the configured value or a default of 2x maximum scheduling quantum. Improved memory statistics Embedded Resource Manager enhances the memory manager in Cisco IOS Software to include memory usage history and memory accounting Improved buffer management Embedded Resource Manager addresses the most frequently faced problems to the Buffer Manager.

They are: ROs account for utilization by the resource users. The RM provides control and notification functions. Signing of TCL scripts enables customers to execute only authenticated and approved scripts on the Cisco devices. It provides a mechanism for the customers to verify the source of the TCL scripts. TCL is an interpreted language and scripts written in TCL do not have to be compiled before execution. TCL scripts can be created and modified dynamically.

As a result TCL is highly portable and extensible. It is used for rapid prototyping, scripted applications and testing. An individual node includes both a radio and a network router, with the two devices interconnected via Ethernet. Radio link quality in a MANET can vary dramatically due to a variety of factors such as noise, fading, interference, and power fluctuation.

This feature enables a Cisco router to use Layer 2 feedback from its partner radio to optimize Layer 3 processing. Enables Cisco routers to provide faster network convergence by reacting to link status signals generated by the radio, rather than waiting for protocol times to expire. The PPPoE protocol has been extended to enable a radio to report link quality metric information to a router.

This PPPoE extension allows the radio to control the rate at which the router can transmit data for each PPPoE session, so that the need for queuing in the radio is minimized. Aggregates per-neighbor PPPoE sessions and maps these to appear as a single point-to-multipoint, multi-access, broadcast-capable network. This provides a more flexible deployment scheme to support the various applications requirement.


IEEE Page of Product Bulletin 6. Combining it with This helps protect the network from attack by machines with insufficient antivirus posture. Performing posture validation at the edge maximizes the portion of the network which is protected and allows posture validation to be performed within a VLAN. Universal Client Mode This feature allows the access point radio to act as a client to another Cisco or third-party access point. Please see caveats for known issues.

Wireless Non-Root Bridge The wireless non-root bridge allows the access point radio to operate as the remote node in a point to point or point to multi-point network. Please see caveats for information on antenna support. Wireless Root Bridge The wireless root bridge role provides support for both point-to-point or point to multi-point bridging. Access point radio operating in universal client mode can only pass traffic across the network via a native VLAN.

A workaround for this is to use the native VLAN to associate the client or if this is a Cisco access point that the client is associated to, upgrade the access point Cisco IOS Software image to Release Page of Product Bulletin regulations. Cisco router models using Release Previously, an IP address assigned to a subscriber through local IP pools could be immediately reassigned to a new subscriber once it was released. Now, a holdback timer may be configured for local IP pools to specify a time before which an IP address that is released will not be reassigned to a new subscriber, eliminating the inconsistencies of overlapped identities in the backend systems.

This capability is especially useful in mobile networks like GGSN where frequent recycling of IP addresses causes the problem mentioned above to be more likely. Ad hoc conferences are created when one party calls another party, then either party adds one or more parties to the conference call. Page of Product Bulletin This DSP or hardware-based conferencing allows more parties and more functionality than software-based conferencing which only allows three parties in a conference.

Customers can choose the legacy software based 3 party ad hoc conference or the new DSP based hardware conferencing feature, but not both.

Cisco 7204 7206 router IOS software image 7200 VXR Series IOS

Meet-me conferences are first created by one user by pressing the Cisco Unified IP Phone Meet-Me softkey, then an available conference bridge is created and others join by dialing the designated conference number. This DSP or hardware-based conferencing allows more parties and more functionality than software-based conferencing which does not support Meet-Me conference. This Meet-Me conferencing feature is a on demand type solution, it does not support reservations nor passwords for entry in to the conference. DSP modules can be on another router. For details on configuration, limitations, and type of phones supported for Ad Hoc and Meet-Me conferencing, refer to the Communications Manager Express admin guide; http: Now the installer can have a default configuration where phones, when connected to the system, will auto-register with a temporary extension number.

Then the installer from the phone dials in to the password protected Extension Assigner and via audio prompts and the phone dial pad, tells the system the extension number the phone should be. The phone will then verify the extension number choice, and will reset the phone as this new extension number. Page of Product Bulletin 8.

The E features include: It also offers redundant and field-replaceable AC and DC power supplies With its combination of scalable performance, compact architecture, high density, and low price per port, the Cisco is ideally suited for a variety of key applications within both the Service Provider and Enterprise markets. Key Applications for Enterprise deployments: Support for features such as IP Security IPsec Protocol and stateful firewall at very high speeds make it an ideal Internet gateway security appliance.

Ideally suited as a low cost route reflector with its ability to hold one million routes with its default minimum of 1 GB memory installed. It can also support a 2 GB memory. By enabling the multifunction capabilities of the Cisco router, customers can simplify their network architectures, significantly reduce initial equipment costs, and increase revenue opportunities through value-added services.

For more information about the Cisco Router, please visit http: Page of Product Bulletin The following key features are supported: The 2-pair and 4-pair G. The G. SHDSL links. The 4-pair G. SHDSL links up to an 8-wire interface with symmetrical bandwidth up to 9. The 2- and 4-pair G. Service Providers can increase subscriber revenue by bundling services and offering differentiated service levels through service level agreements. Cisco Integrated Services Router with G. These platforms can also be optimized for VPN, which allow secure use of the Internet for communications with the same policies and levels of security and performance as a private network.

These features allow providers and resellers to offer services that can differentiate bandwidth based on a specific application or a specific user. SHDSL HWICs on the Cisco Integrated Services Router provides users with an integrated branch office solution with security, routing, wan access, toll quality voice and application services minimizing the number of appliances in the network to provision and manage.

SHDSL links to support higher data rates and extend reach ie: IMA and M-pair mode of operation also allows Service Providers to provide differentiated services based on bandwidth requirements at the customer edge. Single-wide form factor for the 2-pair and 4-pair G. Line-rate performance with lower CPU utilization on the Cisco Series, Cisco and Cisco platforms provide scalable trunking services for both Enterprise and Service Provider customers.

These new port adapters were released in Release Each port adapter T3 interface can be independently configured for either multichannel T3 or clear-channel packet-over-T3 operation. Page of Product Bulletin Table Up to Provides a method of splitting, recombining, and sequencing datagrams across multiple logical data links.

MLPPP allows packets to be fragmented and the fragments to be sent at the same time over multiple point-to-point links to the same remote address. Reduces delay on slower-speed links by breaking up large datagrams and interleaving low-delay traffic packets with the smaller packets resulting from the fragmented datagram. Provides a cost-effective way to increase bandwidth for particular applications by enabling multiple serial links to be aggregated into a single bundle of bandwidth.

Allows long data frames to be fragmented into smaller pieces. This process allows real-time traffic and non-real-time traffic to be carried together on lower-speed links without causing excessive delay to the real-time traffic. It uses 32 or 64KB smart card technology in a USB form factor to facilitate the authentication and configuration process. The token provides secure access to the router-the token and a PIN are necessary to access the configuration, keys, and credentials. The token can also be used to securely provide the configuration to the router, because the configuration can be encrypted on the token.

Customers are able to order routers directly from Cisco or a reseller with a desired Cisco IOS Software image installed, to have the routers shipped directly to the customer premises, and to provide configuration files in a touchless or low-touch manner by distributing an eToken device. This allows the customer or Service Provider to use deployment technicians of a lower skill set for router installations.

Security credentials are physically separated from the chassis of the router. Images, configurations, or other files can be copied to or from the Cisco USB Flash memory with the same reliability as storing and retrieving files using the Compact Flash card. Using only a Web browser, companies can extend their secure Enterprise networks to any Internet-enabled location, including home computers, Internet kiosks, and wireless hotspots, enabling higher employee productivity and protecting corporate data.

While this allows for a great end-user experience, it has to be balanced with proper access-control for the end-user to only get access to the corporate resources that are allowed by the corporate policy. The feature license can be purchased in packs of 10, 25, or simultaneous users directly from the Cisco. Figure 50 provides more portfolio and license pricing details.

Generally these credentials are specific to a particular application and access control information must be located on each individual web server. Basic centralized authentication options offered do not allow for granular access control. Netegrity SiteMinder allows corporations to provide seamless access to many web resources, using almost any possible authentication option, and eliminates the need to authenticate to each individual server. This solution simplifies the authentication process for network resources by eliminating the need to constantly re-authenticate and removes the requirement for multiple distinct access control databases.

Other enabled servers use this cookie to identify this particular user and validate access to any available resources. Each web server must have a SiteMinder Agent installed, which performs verification of the cookie and access rights by communicating with a centrally controlled policy database SiteMinder Policy Server. Figure 51 illustrates what the implementation would look like in a customer network.

This feature support provides the convenience of single unified login to all applications for the users logging in through the SSL VPN gateway. In the application layer, the gateway may have a better idea regarding how to filter the traffic than it does in network layer; hence this feature provides great flexibility for customers to filter the traffic going through their SSL VPN tunnel.

The administrator is allowed to match based on the application filter URL string. A new browser window will be launched with the applet. The Java-based application helper provides support for additional TCP-based applications that are not Web-enabled and supplements clientless access by providing connectivity to applications such as e-mail, instant messaging, Telnet, SSH etc. The Port-forwarding enhancements were added to improve the existing thin-client support application helper. As part of this enhancement, HTTP proxy functionality was added, like the one that might be found on the network ie: This allows the Java Applet to take over as the proxy for the browser.

For additional security, the applet needs to be digitally signed, since this allows for file modification, and port opening rights. This occasionally occurs with sites that use Java, ActiveX and Flash. The table below provides a quick comparison between the old and new port-forwarding enhancement.

The enhanced port-forwarding applet uses HTTP proxy which provides much better performance due to client side caching as compared to the older implementation. Page of Product Bulletin debug infrastructure to help customers and Cisco Technical Assistance Center engineers better identify and filter the activity on the network. The Debug Infrastructure provides a better way to filter all the messages and resolve the problem in a timely manner. This unnecessarily exposes internal host information to remote users accessing web resources. This feature would ensure that the directory path being accessed on the internal network is hidden from the remote user.

The functionality provides the ability to hide ie: This includes all bookmarks and sites accessed by entering in the URL in the appropriate location on the web page. Accessing http: URL obfuscation provides the ability to hide the internal hostnames, IP addresses, directory path in the URL links presented at the client browser. The distributed nature of these applications results in increased demands for scale. Page of Product Bulletin make a trade-off between QoS-enabled branch interconnectivity and transport security.

As network security risks increase and regulatory compliance becomes paramount, Group Encrypted Transport GET VPN, a next-generation WAN encryption technology, eliminates the need to compromise between network intelligence and keeping data private.